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German genealogy: Guide to Eastern European Languages
Here are some examples:
- S and SZ. S in Hungarian is pronounced as English "sh", whereas
"sz" in Hungarian is pronounced "s".
- CS in Hungarian is pronounced as "ch" in English.
- GY in Hungarian is pronounced as "dhy";
Magyar for example is pronounced "MUH-dhyar".
- Final Y in Hungarian is not pronounced if it is in any of these
combinations: "-gy", "-ly", "-ny" or "-ty", where it instead
palatalizes the preceding consonant. (There's no need to explain that,
since it won't affect German/Hungarian spelling except for the fact that
the "y" probably won't be there in German.) Otherwise, Y is pronounced
in the same way as the letter "i" in Hungarian.
Like German, Hungarian has an umlaut, but also has a single and double
acute, which look like little slash marks over the vowel. One simple
solution in typing these would be to use the apostrophe mark for the
single acute, and two apostrophes as the double acute.
- A surname may be spelled SZINGER instead of the expected SINGER.
- The town of Bacs is pronounced "botch".
- The word (and name) Nagy (meaning large) is pronounced "NUD-yah".
- döb for umlaut
- d'ob for single acute
- d''ob for double acute
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The diphthong "ea" is pronounced "ya" in English.
Two vowels have diacritics: a(breve) and i(carat). The pronunciation is
virtually identical: schwa, or "uh" as in the English word "but".
The cedilla (tail) is found on two consonants:
t(cedilla) = ts in English
s(cedilla) = sh
"c" before "e, i" is pronounced "ch", before other vowels as "k".
Final "i" is most often dropped in pronunciation, as say in
Bucures(cedilla)ti, pronounced Bukuresht.
Romanian to English On-line Dictionary
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For transcription purposes, the only difference between the Serbian and
Croatian variants is alphabet: Croatian uses the Roman alphabet, and
Serbian uses the Cyrillic. The comments below, using Roman letters,
apply equally to the Serbian Cyrillic.
Except for "c" = "ts", only letters with diacritics in the Roman
alphabet present problems. The chief diacritic is a "hacek", a small
"v" over the letter.
The letter "c" with an acute accent is, for transliteration purposes,
The letter "d" can be crossed like "t", and in pronounced like English "j".
Although there is no problem in pronounciation, if looking words up in
the dictionary, one should know that "lj" and "nj" are separate letters,
and follow "l" and "n" respectively.
One orthographic peculiarity which may cause problems in
transliteration or looking words up in a dictionary is that
Serbo-Croatian has "voicing assimilation." Almost all consonants occur
in pairs, and how a consonant is voiced (the degree to which the vocal
chords vibrate) depends on the following consonant. Modern
Serbo-Croatian orthography reflects this, so that different forms of
the same word or same part of a word may be spelled differently than
other forms. The following is a list of consonant pairs.
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Last update: 25-May-98 (rmh)
Thanks to Gordon McDaniel for authoring the first version of this guide.
Thanks also to
Created by: Rick Heli
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